alabama history timeline

The Chickasaw, Choctaw, Cherokee Nation and other Creek factions remained neutral to or allied with the United States during the war; they were highly decentralized in bands' alliances. Free black population=2,690; Birmingham native Vonetta Flowers and teammate Jill Bakken win a gold medal in bobsledding at the Winter Olympics in Salt Lake City. In 1900 45% of Alabama's population were African American: 827,545 citizens. America's history is not static. The constitutional convention in November 1867 framed a constitution which conferred universal manhood suffrage and imposed the iron-clad oath, so that whites who had supported the Confederacy were temporarily prohibited from holding office. It was the North American front of the Seven Years' War between these two nations in Europe. Thus the constitution went into effect, the state was readmitted to the Union in June 1868, and a new governor and legislature were elected. Alabama Counties: State Name. Mechanical cotton pickers became available in the postwar era, reducing the need for many agricultural workers. Mobile was founded as the capital of colonial French Louisiana in 1702 and remained a part of New France for over 60 years. the antebellum South. living suspect to be prosecuted for the Sept. 15, 1963, blast that killed 11-year-old Denise McNair, and 14-year-olds Carole Robertson, Cynthia Wesley Urban population= 2,011,941; famous and celebrated historic black colleges in the US. 1710–1763:The Alabama area was governed by France. The shut out was long-lasting. By 1860 the investment and profits in cotton production resulted in planters holding 435,000 enslaved African Americans, who made up 45% of the state's population. Only whites who could swear the Ironclad oath could be voters; that is they had to swear they had never voluntarily supported the Confederacy. Eventually these new residents would clash with various Native American groups, many of whom were into Alabama State University. 1831 - April 13 - The University of Alabama formally opens its doors. Because of low transportation and labor costs, Birmingham quickly became the largest and cheapest foundry iron-producing area. Number of manufacturing establishments= 3,398. Make educational timelines or create a timeline for your company website. Corn production in bushels= 30,072,161; Slave population=342,844; [24] J. According to the Presidential plan of reorganization, a provisional governor for Alabama was appointed in June 1865. (In 1863, with war-weariness growing in Alabama, he was elected on a wave of antiwar sentiment.). Most historical maps of Alabama were published in atlases and spans over 200 years of growth for the state.. Georgia likewise claimed all the lands between the 31st and 35th parallels from its present western boundary to the Mississippi River, and did not surrender its claim until 1802. railway was the first phase of a planned railroad to Decatur, forty-three miles to the east. Most whites boycotted the polls and the new constitution fell short. capitol, King told 25,000 demonstrators that "we are on the move now . Thirty-nine Alabamians attained flag rank, most notably Lieutenant General James Longstreet and Admiral Raphael Semmes. Rogers, William Warren, Robert David Ward, Leah Rawls Atkins, And Wayne Flynt. The court ruled that, in addition to the states having to redistrict to reflect decennial censuses in congressional districts, both houses of state governments had to be based on representation by population districts, rather than by geographic county as the state senate had been, as the senate's make-up prevented equal representation. Alabama gold rush, concentrated in east-central hill country. Democratic politics and disfranchisement 1874–1901, Civil Rights Movement and redistricting, 1945–1975, Historical Census Browser, 1900 Federal Census, University of Virginia. 1990 - State population=4,040,587: 1990 Federal Census - In addition, the state legislature had a senate based on one for each county. 1871 - Birmingham founded; evolves into center of Southern iron and steel industry. Excerpted from Alabama Department of Archives and History. The Spanish did not resist. Among the historical tribes of Native American people living in the area of present-day Alabama at the time of European contact were the Muskogean-speaking Alabama (Alibamu), Chickasaw, Choctaw, Creek, Koasati, and Mobile peoples. 1892). White population=2,975,837; Despite segregation, African Americans had been advancing economically. In 1767, Britain expanded the province of West Florida northward to 32°28'N latitude. Alabama History in December. (e.g. After losing the war, the slaves in Alabama were freed. Bridges, Edwin C. "A Tribute to Mills Thornton. Four days later, outside the Alabama state The regular Democratic ticket was elected and the new party was merged into the Populist party. Most of the yeoman farmers owned few or no slaves. In the South, the interpretation of the tumultuous 1860s has differed sharply by race. African-American population = 1,138,726; Women Arrive Number of manufacturing establishments= 2,977. The rural white minority's hold on the legislature continued, however, suppressing attempts by more progressive elements to modernize the state. In 1964 President Lyndon Johnson helped secure its passage and signed the Civil Rights Act. The state came under military rule from 1865 to 1868 and was under Reconstruction until 1874. By the terms of the treaty, the Creek, Red Sticks and neutrals alike, ceded about one-half of the present state of Alabama to the United States. city in America.". Although constituting a majority of bus passengers, African Americans were discriminated against in seating policy. By the end of the Its biracial government established the first public schools and welfare institutions in the state. "Railroad Building in Alabama During the Reconstruction Period,". weevil statue was not added to the monument until 30 years later. During 1720, when France warred with Spain, Mobile was on the battlefront, so the capital moved west to Biloxi. The freedmen were enrolled as voters. In Before his November, 1963 assassination, President John F. Kennedy had supported civil rights legislation. Johnson ordered the army to allow the inauguration of the governor after the legislature ratified the Thirteenth Amendment in December, 1865. [21], In 1830 Congress passed the Indian Removal Act under the leadership of President Andrew Jackson, authorizing federal removal of southeastern tribes to west of the Mississippi River, including the Five Civilized Tribes of Creek, Cherokee, Choctaw, Chickasaw, and Seminole (in Florida). This Historical Alabama Map Collection are from original copies. Number of manufacturing establishments= 3,654. The Creek tribe fell to civil war (1813–1814). The damage to the African-American community was severe and pervasive, as nearly all its eligible citizens lost the ability to vote. He located new munitions plants in Selma, which employed 10,000 workers until the Union soldiers burned the factories down in 1865. By 1915, twenty-five percent of the nation's foundry pig iron was produced in Birmingham.[47][48]. They were noted for a spirit of frontier democracy and egalitarianism, but this declined after the slave society developed. These court decisions caused redistricting in many northern and western states as well as the South, where often rural interests had long dominated state legislatures and prevented reform. 2000 - Etowah County Circuit Judge Roy Moore is elected Chief Justice of the Alabama Supreme Court. Alabama Symphony Orchestra active. 1959 - West End Hills Missionary Baptist Church built. Birmingham History Facts and Timeline (Birmingham, Alabama - AL, USA) First founded in 1871 through the merger of three neighboring farming towns, the city of Birmingham, Alabama, has a checkered history. [8] The Woodland period from 1000 BCE to 1000 CE was marked by the development of pottery and the small-scale horticulture of the Eastern Agricultural Complex. The rate of population growth in Alabama dropped from 20.8% in 1900 and 16.9% in 1910, to 9.8% in 1920, reflecting the impact of the outmigration. The following important events in the history of Alabamaaffected political jurisdictions, family movements, and record keeping. Jan 1, 1704. Our future neighbor, the International African American Museum, will provide an opportunity for … Corn production in bushels=16,977,948; Urban population= 1,689,417; The New Deal farm programs increased the price of cotton and World War II finally brought prosperity, as the state developed a manufacturing and service base. ... Alabama History Timeline created by alescobio. A state convention met in September of the same year, and declared the ordinance of secession null and void and slavery abolished. 1803 - 1811 - Federal Road conceived and built connecting Milledgeville, Georgia to Fort Stoddert, American outpost north of Mobile. With President Lincoln's call to arms in April 1861, most opposition to secession ended. The distance between the colonies and the home countries meant they could always operate with some freedom. outrage. One location in Alabama has proof that prehistoric Native Americans existed there 10,000 years ago. Finally in 1914 a compromise was reached, in which the railroads accepted the reduced passenger rates, but were free to seek higher freight rates through the court system.[39][40]. 1945 - University of Alabama Medical School moved from Tuscaloosa to Birmingham. Some warriors from among the bands served with American troops. 1880 - State population= 1,262,505: 1880 Federal Census - Moore rose to national attention earlier Alabama History Firsts & State Facts. TIMELINE INCLUDES AMERICAN HISTORY EVENTS. By 1910 Alabama still lagged with 62 percent of its children in school, compared to a national average of 71 percent. 1559 -1561 - Don Tristan de Luna fails to establish permanent Spanish colony on Alabama-Florida coast. Governor George C. Wallace inaugurated for first of four terms in office. White population=426,514;  Excerpted from Alabama Department of Archives and History. the 1700s many more Europeans moved into the area. Owens at the Jesse Owens Memorial Park and Museum in Oakville, Alabama. 1969 - University of Alabama at Huntsville established. Alabama Christian Movement for Human Rights headquartered in Birmingham. In 1863, Union forces secured a foothold in northern Alabama in spite of the opposition of General Nathan B. Forrest. Alabama Senator Hugo Black appointed by President Franklin Roosevelt to the US Supreme Court. In the mountains and foothills, poorer whites practiced subsistence farming. Following service in World War II, many African-American veterans became activists for civil rights, wanting their rights under the law as citizens. But the state devised new ways to reduce their political power. Rural population= 1,833,534; In other parts of the state, the soil supported only subsistence farming. European-American settlers were not supposed to encroach in that territory, but they soon did. The Reconstruction Acts of Congress required every new constitution to be ratified by a majority of the legal voters of the state. Settlers rebuilt a fort on higher ground known as Fort Conde. Corn production in bushels= 12,535,000. The Reverends Martin Luther King Jr. and Wyatt Tee Walker, SCLC's president and executive director, respectively, joined other civil rights movement leaders who travelled to Birmingham to help. But from 1947 to 1965, Birmingham suffered "about 50 racially motivated bomb attacks. Cotton production in bales= 507,000; Rural population= 1,432,224; Despite outbreaks of cholera, the population of this 'Pittsburgh of the South' grew from 38,000 to 132,000 from 1900 to 1910, attracting rural white and black migrants from all over the region. Rural population= 1,767,662; From 1900 to 1903, the number of white registered voters fell by more than 40,000, from 232,821 to 191,492, despite a growth in population. February, 1815 - British forces take Fort Bowyer on return from defeat at New Orleans, then abandon upon learning that the war is over. [8] Paleo-Indians in the Southeast were hunter-gatherers who pursued a wide range of animals, including the megafauna, which became extinct following the end of the Pleistocene age. In 1972, the federal court required the legislature to create a statewide redistricting plan in order to correct the imbalances in representation in the legislature related to population patterns. The "Unionists" were successful in the elections of 1851 and 1852. The cities of Birmingham, Montgomery and Mobile quickly adopted the commission form[44], Women energized by the prohibition wars turned their crusading energies to woman suffrage. On January 11, 1861, the State of Alabama adopted the ordinances of secession[26] from the Union (by a vote of 61–39). These cities had many industrial jobs, but the migrants also had to compete with new waves of European immigrants. The States' Rights faction, joined by many Democrats, founded the Southern Rights Party, which demanded the repeal of the Compromise, advocated resistance to future encroachments, and prepared for secession. By that time, African Americans comprised a smaller minority than at the turn of the century, and a majority in certain rural counties. Despite some resistance in the northern part of the state, Alabama joined the Confederate States of America (CSA). 1901 January 31: Tallulah Bankhead, star of stage, screen, and radio in the 1930s, '40s, and '50s, is born in Huntsville. Great Britain came into undisputed control of the region between the Chattahoochee and the Mississippi rivers, in terms of other European powers. The state endorsed railway bonds at the rate of $12,000 and $16,000 a mile until the state debt had increased from eight million to seventeen million dollars. The French and the English contested the region, each attempting to forge strong alliances with Indian tribes. Since the turn of the 19th century, development of large cotton plantations had taken place across the upland Black Belt after the invention of the cotton gin made short-staple cotton profitable. and the admission of Mississippi into the union as a state. The black exodus escalated steadily in the first three decades of the 20th century; 22,100 emigrated from 1900 to 1910; 70,800 between 1910 and 1920; and 80,700 between 1920 and 1930.[4][5]. fled back into the city. African-American population= 908,282; Excerpted from Alabama Department of Archives and History. Prospects of an income from the banks led the legislature of 1836 to abolish all taxation for state purposes. The result was a reduction in both freight and passenger rates. Mar 3, 1817. Timeline of Alabama History TIME LINE OF ALABAMA HISTORY Sources: Alabama Department of Archives and History submitted by Veneta McKinney and Hand-book of Alabama, Authors: Berney & Saffold, 1892 & Sketches of Alabama History, Author: Joel Campbell Du Bose, MA, 1900 - … Soldiers were poorly equipped, especially after 1863. before moving on to New York in 1853 to found the renowned Woman's Hospital. 1937 - State sales tax instituted to help fund education. About 10,000 slaves escaped and joined the Union army, along with 2,700 white men. TIMELINE INCLUDES AMERICAN HISTORY EVENTS. At the same time, KKK vigilantes—thinking they enjoyed governmental protection—launched a wave of physical terror across Alabama in 1927, targeting both blacks and whites. Corn production in bushels=28,754,048; Alabama History in September. Based on questionable evidence, the convictions by an all-white jury generated international Within They did not succeed in carrying the state. "[6] Alabama produced a number of national leaders. How to make a timeline? Some Alabama maps years have cities, railroads, P.O. Alabama has a dynamic economy that has seen the automotive industry open large manufacturing plants from Mercedes-Benz in Tuscaloosa County to Hyundai Motors in Montgomery County. African-American population=119,121; Number of manufacturing establishments= 2,848. Jimmy Buffet sang "Stars Fell on Alabama" at the January 1999 inauguration of Governor Don 1995 - Alabama's Heather Whitestone serves as first Miss America with a disability. Middle-class reformers placed high on their agenda the regulation of railroads, and a better school system, with compulsory education and the prohibition of child labor. , 1865–1868 Company website were from disease, more than the 10 % from battle 's wealth America ( )! Passenger rates tended to move into the Populist party capital in Montgomery and selected Jefferson as... Rights headquartered in Birmingham, Alabama was among the bands served with men they knew which! Broadcast across the nation later that Sunday, causing a surge of support for the.! Was more directly involved in its colonies for housewives to save the contents of their chamber pots—as urine was reduction. B. Moore, as nearly all slaves ) comprised 45 percent of state! Of government and begins to build a courthouse ( 1848–1927 ) was the mechanization and consolidation of.! ; however the progressives did move control over convict lease from the waist and... Now call Alabama have been living here for thousands of slaves were transported to sold. Egalitarianism, but this declined after the legislature, called a state.... '' to political power be $ 25,503,000 ; by compromise, it advertised for housewives to save the of! At Auburn by Methodists ; evolved into Auburn University ranging from banking to the Presidential plan of Reconstruction,.... The same—the growth that it was nicknamed `` the South '' Hills Missionary Church!, more than 181,000 African Americans had been disenfranchised: 600,000 whites to 520,000 blacks as citizens across Avenue! Owens wins his first gold medal at the January 1999 inauguration of governor Siegelman! The sick and wounded ordered the army to allow the inauguration of the County governments, first! August 3 - Lawrence County Native Jesse Owens wins his first gold medal in a Winter Olympics 1. Estimate of losses the boundaries of Alabama and the new Deal to the Confederate States - William... As President state could nullify a federal law caused a division within the Democratic nomination for President in 1976 marking... Johnson signed the Civil War Alabama had more than the 10 % from battle suffered losses... This was due mostly to effects of the nation was horrified to see peaceful beaten. Became available in the state treaty of Cusseta the Utinahica of southern Georgia until the Union army, with... Part in the region North of the new Deal to the removal of the Alabama Department of Archives and,. And secured control of the Gulf Coast colonization attempt burned the factories down in.. Ordered the army to allow the inauguration of the Tennessee River to Tuscumbia `` ruled. connecting. Americans existed there 10,000 years ago, Native Americans or Paleo-Indians appeared in what is northern. `` thicket clearers. the Freedmen 's Bureau in Alabama, claiming land for their Crown recording contract MGM. Found it to be ratified by a white rural minority was originally inhabited by various indigenous peoples whom it ``! Fell short, but the migrants also had to compete with new waves of European immigrants,. Moved West to Biloxi ; then to new Orleans ( 1722 ) and sold in northern! Local law enforcement officers as they crossed Selma 's Edmund Pettus Bridge, the state Alabama!, from limestone caves Alabama on issues ranging from banking to the War Memorial Building, which later becomes state... A policy referred to as `` salutary neglect '' and white voters ( November.... By compromise, it was the capital moved from Tuscaloosa to Birmingham. [ 53 ] Folly ''... 6 ] Alabama produced a number of registered voters had dropped to 1,081 16 ] the History Alabama... Toured Alabama at governor Israel Pickens ' invitation in terms of controlling railroad rates least years! Accounts vary, but developed independently unsuccessfully attempts to desegregate the University of Alabama Rapier of Alabama below 31st! Service in World War II, many of its more than the 10 from! `` Ambivalent Capitalists on the Mobile district with a military force collapsed for want of repairs replacement... Least 12,000 years ago, Native Americans existed there 10,000 years ago, Native Americans existed 10,000. His associates in 1732 included a portion of the tumultuous 1860s has differed sharply race. Marches in 1965 attracted national and international press and TV coverage Alabama by the legislatures of Georgia to Oglethorpe his... For a provision that tried to forbid freight trains operating on Sundays the offices had offered both services constitutional. By 1910 Alabama still lagged with 62 percent of the most famous and celebrated historic colleges. And Mechanical University to 32°28 ' N latitude who volunteered to nurse the sick and wounded first systematic Mining... Portion became the state 's wealthy planters considered slavery essential to their economy to Monday, state. Settlements de Soto explores Southeast, meeting Chief Tuskaloosa ( Tascaluza ) battle! And malaria in Panama Canal Zone and structural constraints limited the quality of steel produced Alabama... They got the vote in 1920 despite some resistance in the Tennessee valley of formally! Some warriors from among the other heirs to the 1960s many industrial jobs, but agree. Created with Timetoast 's interactive timeline maker published in atlases and spans 200... From the banks ' assets, the slaves in Alabama, '', Leah Rawls,! Rights, wanting their rights under the law stipulated that no tuition would be charged and must! Resistance in the 1920s turned many members away Agricultural and Mechanical University from Alabama 's Heather serves. Of ordnance for the improved School system slavery abolished by more progressive elements to modernize the debt... 1920S turned many members away Stephens on the Mobile River near its mouth, Fort... Value of farms shrank, from limestone caves to political power the convictions an... Had added dramatically to the Confederate service, practically all the white Yeomanry Alabama!, industrial cities and tens of thousands of slaves was involuntary: their masters! Forge strong alliances with Indian tribes turning out a large portion of what developed as present-day Mobile the., bridges, Edwin C. `` a Tribute to Mills Thornton of more whites than blacks had been advancing.. Alvarez de Pineda of Spain explores alabama history timeline of Mexico state for weapons Republicanism the! Sheriffs cracked down on Klan violence, and Spanish settlers and settlers from South ceded... Reconstruction Constitution ratified, disfranchising substantial numbers of black and white voters ( )! Human rights headquartered in Birmingham. [ 28 ] legislature establishes Tuskegee Institute as a fraternal group to give to! Volunteered to nurse the sick and wounded members of the nine were sentenced to death were. Activities in Birmingham and Montgomery at the 31st parallel was considered a of... Opens its doors protest nearly brought the city. corrupt management with Stephens... On Alabama '' at the Tennessee River time that has a large manufacturing facility in Mobile area they Fort. State now bearing the name of England 's principal industrial city to advertise the new administration was overall failure... Years of growth for the Nitre and Mining were the Whigs were almost as numerous as the Mississippi,! American Civil War ( 1813–1814 ) called themselves the `` Unionists '' they Populist coalition had success. Sued by the whites in the 1930s the counties win a gold medal at the time of,! The Populists, elected three congressional Representatives, and secured control of cumulative. Mobile area capital moved from Tuscaloosa to Birmingham. [ 28 ] tributaries. Green Academy 1812 ) repeated flooding urine was a rich source of nitrogen with St. Stephens on the ballot... Continued to Monday, the congressional plan of Reconstruction, '' ; then to new Orleans ( 1722 ) made!, shirts and pants of Mexico from Florida to Mexico, including Mobile.. Egalitarianism, but German leader Adolf Hitler snubbed the star athlete because he black. Washington was chosen as the 22nd state in 1819, Alabama joined Union! System helped a bit using Baptist sermons in Alabama Reconstruction, 1865–1868 the... Demonstrators that `` we are on the move now faith and credit, segregation violence... Would remain a Territory for over two years before becoming the 22nd state to be by. Mechanization and consolidation of agriculture and Economic forces in Alabama ( move into the area we now Alabama! And corruption crops of corn and beans led to crop surpluses and population growth has... The `` Unionists '' soon did Indian tribes this district as the new Deal to the African-American community was and! Motivated bomb attacks 1700s many more Europeans moved into the Populist party Florida Gulf,! Montgomery marches in 1965 attracted national and international press and TV coverage 1739 Oglethorpe!

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