flow direction watershed

The largest river flowing into the Arctic watershed is the Mackenzie. the flow in this reversed flow direction until a few drops of mobile phase exit from the column. Then, have the volunteers suck up water from one body of water using both turkey basters. 2 deep clear baking trays This can be created using the Flow Direction tool, run with default flow direction type D8 (in Python, with the D8 option). Physical characteristics are: rocks, soils, sediments and of course, water. Located at higher elevations where temperatures are consistently lower, glaciers act as giant water stores, which release water late in the summer when temperatures are high, and the previous winter’s snowmelt has been depleted. Users can also select to learn about its drainage into the Pacific and Arctic Oceans, as well as Hudson’s Bay. To understand the importance of water and water conservation, we must first understand how water interacts with the world around us. Compute watershed grids: fill, flow direction, and flow accumulation We transport bottled water collecting it from one place and sending it to another. An area where all water drains to the same river or body of water is called a watershed . These numbers on this side of the chart (the 'y' axis) change depending on the range of flows … In this example, the input is FlowDir_Fill1. While they are ultimately considered to be part of the Arctic Ocean, Hudson Bay, James Bay, Ungava Bay and Foxe Basin are referred to as part of the Hudson Bay drainage area. Go: SEXTANTE->Geoalgorithms->Domain Specific->Terrain Analysis and Geomorphology->Fill Sinks. Those are D8, Multi Flow Direction (MFD) and D-Infinity (DINF). In D8 method, assigns a cell’s flow direction to the one of its eight surrounding cell’s that has the steepest distance-weighted gradient. I am a student working with Hydrological models. The basin is fed by the Nelson and Manitoba’s Churchill rivers, which flow eastward from the Continental Divide, as well as Quebec’s La Grand Rivière. It is the lowest point along the boundary of a watershed. An area where all water drains to the same river or body of water is called a watershed. This area can be delineated from a digital elevation model (DEM) using … A simple way to imagine this is using a shower analogy. The outlet, or pour point, is the point on the surface at which water flows out of an area. the amount of water flowing past a spot in a second. Tape a piece of paper to the inside of each baking tray. Direction of water flow can be predicted based on the ground’s elevation and soil type. Watershed components. Delineating watersheds. In this demonstration, students will learn what watersheds are and how they impact our local waters. Once the rain hits the ground it will flow downward following the path of least resistance. The values for each direction from the center are the following: For example, if the direction of steepest drop was to the left of the current processing cell, its flow direction would be coded as 16. In some parts of Alberta and Saskatchewan there are closed watersheds or areas known as internal drainages, which do not drain into any ocean. The grid drop concept is introduced and used to develop a micromechanism-based methodology for calculating watershed flow concentration. Another possible hydrological apex is Triple Peak in Montana’s Glacier National Park, while the third is in Siberia. Canada’s water drains through five main watersheds, each of which is supported by several sub-basins. r.watershed offers two methods to calculate surface flow: single flow direction (SFD, D8) and multiple flow direction (MFD). Direction of water flow between sub watersheds (or watershed sub basins). This time, release the water into the other watershed. flow_distance: Compute flow distance to outlet. What are some ways that we may be displacing water and affecting our reservoir water levels? In Metro Vancouver, there are three separate watersheds that we use to collect water into a storage body or reservoir. The A T least-cost path is always included. These minerals, nutrients and pollution all flow into the same body of water as well. DISCLAIMER:. A widely used method for deriving flow direction is the D8 method, used by Arc GIS. All the areas that the shower head water hits is part of the same ‘watershed’, because it will all flow down into the same ‘river’, the drain pipe. Each baking tray represents a watershed. See Historical Data on River Flow Rates . Province or Territory . Using the turkey baster or eye dropper, have the volunteers suck up water from the reservoir at the lowest point of the watershed. Running in a north-south orientation, the Rocky Mountains create the Continental Divide. Approximately 30 per cent of Canada’s water drains to the Hudson Bay watershed. When these clouds fill with water, the water will eventually fall as precipitation. Watersheds can be delineated from a DEM by computing the flow direction and using it in the Watershed tool. Users of the RVCA flow data and water level data are cautioned to consider the unverified nature of the information before using it for decisions that concern personal or public safety or the conduct of business. The physical characteristics of the land are the very base of a watershed. For some water this is in the form of surface flow or runoff in creeks and rivers. In Saskatchewan, Big Muddy Creek and the Poplar River are also part of the Missouri-Mississippi drainage. Where does your drinking water come from. Some of the pages on this site require flash or Adobe's PDF reader. Prop up both baking trays at an angle (~ 45°) using books to create one high elevation edge and one low elevation edge. 4 thick books (at least 2 to help prop up each tray) The WATERSHED function takes as input, the final flow direction grid (output from the NED preprocessing steps), and the raster grid representation of the NHD dendritic network. Describe methods and the importance of water conservation. Per Class or Group: Hand out a turkey baster or eye dropper to each volunteer. Located on the Columbia Icefield of Jasper National Park in the Canadian Rockies, 3456-metre Mount Snow Dome is considered a likely hydrological apex, from where meltwater ultimately flows to three oceans – the Pacific, via the Columbia River; the Arctic via the Athabasca; and the Atlantic via the North Saskatchewan River, which drains to Hudson Bay. We pipe water away from a watershed to be used in irrigation for our agriculture. Open the Watershed tool. For more information, refer to ArcGIS Pro: How Watershed works.. Run the Raster to Polygon tool to convert the watershed raster output to a polygon.. Open the Raster to Polygon tool. Groundwater flows at right angles to the equipotential lines in the same way that water flowing down a slope would flow at right angles to the contour lines. Canada’s eastern watersheds are supplied by rainfall and snowmelt, which also serves as a store of freshwater, filling rivers as it melts in the spring and early summer months. Where does the water start? Compute watershed grids: fill, flow direction, and flow accumulation in ArcMap The Input flow direction rasteris the flow direction raster output in Step 3, or the enhanced flow direction grid provided with the OMNRF data package. Add some plasticine to create mountains or landscape. Watersheds … The Milk River, which is the northernmost tributary of the Missouri-Mississippi system begins in Montana then flows north into Alberta before looping back into Montana. Watersheds that are upper elevation, such as those in the mountains of B.C and Alberta, and the glaciers of Canada’s eastern Arctic region, produce stream flow from snow melt, rainfall and icemelt. 2 cups of water It should only be performed on grids that are known to be free of sinks. tape What about our litter, like plastic bags? Where does it end? Search Tool > Flow Direction (Spatial Analyst) Input surface raster: ‘aoi’ Output flow direction raster: …\Testing\Watershed\FlowDelete Click OK This dataset will be deleted after we run the next tool, (Sink). Main page of the National Hydrometric Real-time website. Double-click the Watershed tool to open the tool dialog and set the parameters as follows. This water is raining back down. Turn off the flow, let the pressure go to zero, and disconnect the column from the system. Canada’s water drains through five main watersheds, each of which is supported by several sub-basins. Watersheds can be delineated from a DEM by computing the flow direction and using it in the Watershed tool. ~ s are given in degrees counterclockwise from east. cell_area: Compute (projected) area of cells. All drainage areas west of that divide flow to the Pacific Ocean watershed. Put a few drops of food colouring on each piece of paper and around the plasticine. Most of the Earth’s water is found in the ocean. Water level and flow; Real-Time Data; Real-Time Hydrometric Data Map Search. Describe a watershed and how water flows through the environment. Watersheds A watershed is an area that drains all precipitation received as a runoff or base flow (groundwater sources) into a particular river or set of rivers. Water evaporates from the ocean, lakes and rivers and condenses into clouds. WSC Region WSC Region. Other major Canadian rivers contributing to the Atlantic Ocean watershed include Labrador’s Churchill River and New Brunswick’s Saint John River. Stream flows can be significantly altered when rivers are dammed, when streams are channelized for better drainage of the land, when riparian vegetation is removed, and when the land in the watershed is modified, for example by urbanization that causes an increase in impervious surfaces. Follow the flow of water through your closest watersheds. Flow direction To calculate a drainage network or watershed s, a grid must exist that is coded for the direction in which each cell in a surface drains. flow_distance: Compute flow distance to outlet. I am conducting some watershed work in conjunction with land use etc and I recently had to burn my streams into my DEM so a proper flow accumulation of the area could be calculated. Each year flows will be different, based on the amount of snowmelt and rain. catchment: Delineate catchment from flow direction. Notice that as the water flows on the surface and in the soil, it picks up some of the minerals, nutrients, and pollution found in the soil. This is calculated as follows: maximum_drop = change_in_z- value / distance * 100 The distance is calculated between cell centers. For most water, this ends up being the ocean. When the rate of precipitation exceeds the infiltration rate of water what is the result? These drops represent minerals, nutrients, or pollution. When water moves from the shower heads (and ‘rains’), the water will hit the shower curtains, the walls and the bottom of the shower. A flow direction raster shows the direction water will flow out of each cell of a filled elevation raster. A cubic metre is 1,000 litres of water. Watersheds can be delineated from a DEM by computing the flow direction and using it in the Watershed tool. The values for each direction from the center are the following: For example, if the direction of steepest drop was to the left of the current processing cell, its flow direction would be coded as 16. Note. The map search is not optimized for extra small screen. But if flows are high enough, the river can’t hold all the water, and it flows over normally dry land, through the floodplain. The Hudson Bay drainage basin includes portions of Alberta, Saskatchewan, Manitoba, Ontario, Quebec, Northwest Territories and Nunavut, as well as four U.S. states – Montana, South Dakota, North Dakota and Minnesota. Turn the column around and hook it up so that the flow is now in the direction of the arrow. Where does our pollution end up? Use cedar_fdras input for flow direction, snap_ptfor input pour point raster, leave the default pour point field unchanged, and name the output raster as watershed. The new watershed grid will be added to the data frame. A watershed is an upslope area that contributes water flow as concentrated drainage. This interactive piece features a map and explanation of Canada’s Snow Dome. Observe how the water flows downwards. Watersheds are defined spatially by the geomorphological property of drainage. Flow accumulation is the next step in hydrologic modeling. With MFD, water flow is distributed to all neighbouring cells with lower elevation, using slope towards neighbouring cells as a weighing factor for proportional distribution. ~ s are given in degrees counterclockwise from east. Most drainage basins in eastern Canada and the Maritimes flow to the Atlantic Ocean watershed, particularly the Great Lakes-St. Lawrence system. A small portion of Canada’s freshwater also drains to the Gulf of Mexico watershed. 2. In all of its forms it touches everything in the watershed. plasticine for creating landscapes, 1455 Quebec Street Have the volunteers repeat steps 1-3 a few times. Water that flows into the Arctic Ocean or into the channels of the Arctic Islands is considered to be a part of the Arctic Ocean watershed. As an alternative, the Station Search is available. How does water flow through its environment? In both cases, the water will continue to flow and pick up minerals, nutrients and pollution, until it reaches a body of water that is at low elevation. The rate of flow shows next to the name of the gauge. We transport food, which is full of water, from country to country. Canada’s watersheds . The easiest way to describe the network of rivers and lakes on a small-scale map is to show the watersheds. Information about water quantity is required by a wide audience, including research scientists, policy-makers, design engineers and the general public. For Input D8 flow direction raster, select the raster output from Step 2. Volumetric flow rate, also known as discharge, volume flow rate, and rate of water flow, is the volume of water which passes through a given cross-section of the river channel per unit time. Watershed components. Regarding the slope as an uneven carpet through which the grid drop passes, a formula for overland flow velocity … Select the flow direction grid as the input flow direction raster. Vancouver, BC Flow direction To calculate a drainage network or watershed s, a grid must exist that is coded for the direction in which each cell in a surface drains. 1 bottle of food colouring It is the lowest point along the boundary of a watershed. catchment: Delineate catchment from flow direction. Flows are measured in cubic meters per second, i.e. Note: The Watershed tool delineates the upslope contributing area with flow direction input created from a DEM surface. Watershed visualization The last step for this lesson will be to visualize the watersheds created earlier with other data. Water level, flow and sediment data are used by decision makers to resolve issues related to sustainable use, infrastructure planning and water apportionment. Note that even though there is the same amount of water in total, by displacing the water, one reservoir will decline in size. The rim of the bowl or the water-shed boundary is sometimes referred to as the ridgeline or watershed divide. V6A 3Z7, ASTC Science World Society is a registered charity 10673 4809 RR0001. Within these models we can route water across a DEM (within a delineated watershed or just within an un-delineated DEM) using many different flow routing algorithms: D8, MFD (sometimes FD8), Rho8, DEMON, D-Inf, and so on, with different variations within even the ones I listed possible (original MFD vs. MFD with a power term). This activity demonstrates how water moves, and how water collects. Get a map of your region. In our modern age, we transport water from one watershed to another in many ways. Most of the time, a river is large enough to contain its flow within its banks. The outlet, or pour point, is the point on the surface at which water flows out of an area. ; For Input raster, select the raster output from Step 6.. The largest rivers in this region are the Fraser, the Yukon and the Columbia rivers. Over half of BC’s population uses these three reservoirs as our source of drinking water. The Water Security Agency and the Government of Saskatchewan disclaims all other warranties, either expressed or implied, including but not limited to implied warranties of merchantability and fitness for a particular purpose, with respect to the information, data, product or accompanying materials retrieved from this web site. 1. It is typically measured in cubic metres per second (cumec) or cubic feet per second (cfs), where 1 m 3 /s = 35.51 ft 3 /s; it is sometimes also measured in litres or gallons per second. Note that some water is infiltrated into the soil, and some flows on top flowing back down to the same body of water. Accept the other defaults. the watershed to function. Notice. Although we can reduce the amount of water in a given area, will the water cycle stop all together? Running in a north-south orientation, the Rocky Mountains create the Continental Divide.All drainage areas west of that divide flow to the Pacific Ocean watershed.The largest rivers in this region are the Fraser, the Yukon and the Columbia rivers. You will then need to provide the locations you wish to determine the catchment area for. They define in which direction water will flow. cell_area: Compute (projected) area of cells. For some of the water, this is in the form of infiltration, which means that the water flows through the soil to the ground water. Start the flow Flowing 4,241 kilometres from its origins on the Columbia Icefield in the Canadian Rockies, the Mackenzie overlies portions of five provinces and territories – British Columbia, Alberta, Saskatchewan, Yukon and Northwest Territories. The input flow direction raster is the flow direction grid that was made before. extract_river_network: Extract river network at a given accumulation threshold. The Flow Direction tool supports three flow modeling algorithms. Flow Direction is a choice on the Hydro menu. accumulation: Flow direction to flow accumulation. The D8 flow method models flow direction from each cell to its steepest downslope neighbor. The Grand River (French: La Rivière Grand; Mohawk: Kenhionhata:tie) formerly known as The River Ouse is a large river in Southwestern Ontario, Canada.It also lies along the western fringe of the Greater Golden Horseshoe region of Ontario which overlaps the eastern portion of southwestern Ontario, sometimes referred to as Midwestern Ontario, along the length of this river. The flow path and distance traveled by a grid drop to the outlet of the watershed are obtained using a digital elevation model (DEM). This is a crucial step in hydrological modeling, as the direction of flow will determine the ultimate destination of the water extract_river_network: Extract river network at a given accumulation threshold. To determine the contributing area, a raster representing the direction of flow must first be created with the Flow Direction tool. https://www.scienceworld.ca/resource/watersheds-and-water-flow This represents a reservoir, ocean, lake, or any body of water. This video shows how to style streams, catchment boundary, flow direction raster and DEM using QGIS. This ridge line separates one watershed from another. 2 pieces of brown paper Then, have the volunteers release the water at the top most spot of the baking tray. 1. I forgot to mention 'Fill Sinks' which is in a different part of SEXTANTE. In this data frame, cells flowing due north are displayed in yellow. Pour 1 cup of water on the low edge of each baking dish. The output of the Flow Direction tool is an integer raster whose values range from 1 to 255. 1 black marker flowdir: DEM to flow direction. The output of the Flow Direction tool is an integer raster whose values range from 1 to 255. Better results will be obtained if the Snap Pour Point tool is used beforehand to help locate the pour points to cells of high accumulated flow. Once the erroneous depressions are filled from the Sink tool, we will re-run our Flow Direction to continue our watershed flowdir: DEM to flow direction. The direction of flow is determined by the direction of steepest descent, or maximum drop, from each cell. If we take water out of one watershed faster than it is replenished (by precipitation, or mountain glaciers melting) then our reservoirs will slowly decrease in size. Precipitation can be rain, snow, hail or sleet. According to some definitions, water flowing to Hudson Bay is considered to be part of the Atlantic Ocean. Download flash, download PDF reader. 2 turkey basters or eye droppers A simple way to imagine this is using a shower analogy. accumulation: Flow direction to flow accumulation. It comes in 3 'flavours' and the 'Fill Sinks (Wang & Lui)' version will also output flow direction and watershed basins. Select the raster version of the pour points as the input raster. For Input raster or pour point feature data, select the raster output from Step 5. As water falls onto the bowl’s rim, it either flows down the inside of the bowl or down the outside of the bowl. Watershed Delineation Imagine a watershed as an enormous bowl. The Mackenzie is Canada’s largest river basin, and the tenth largest river basin in the world. Direction of water flow can be predicted based on the ground’s elevation and soil type. Then, evaporation continues the cycle. Delineating watersheds. Province or Territory. Pick two volunteers, one for each watershed. Each catchment is attributed with a corresponding reach code for a one to one relationship to NHD reach codes. Flow accumulation. This water is evaporating. The Watershed tool only supports a D8-type of input flow direction raster. The Mackenzie models flow direction is a choice on the surface at which water flows out of an where... Minerals, nutrients and pollution all flow into the soil, and some flows on top flowing back down the. This demonstration, students will learn what watersheds are defined spatially by the direction of.. Conservation, we transport food, which is supported by several sub-basins to open the tool dialog and the... Of each baking tray values range from 1 to 255 geomorphological property of drainage the tool and. And condenses into clouds set the parameters as follows flash or Adobe flow direction watershed PDF reader through your closest.... To contain its flow within its flow direction watershed this lesson will be added to the Atlantic ocean watershed include Labrador s! Few times output from Step 2 modern age, we must first understand water... Direction input created from a DEM surface catchment area for per cent of Canada ’ s Bay drainage... Baking dish water quantity is required by a wide audience, including research scientists, policy-makers, design engineers the... Up water from the reservoir at the lowest point along the boundary of a watershed as an alternative, water! One relationship to NHD reach codes: maximum_drop = change_in_z- value / *... In creeks and rivers and condenses into clouds tape a piece of and! D8-Type of input flow direction input created from a DEM surface cell of a to! Moves, and how water flows out of an area where all drains. Watershed sub basins ) flowing past a spot in a north-south orientation, the Yukon and the general public to. Of that divide flow to the Atlantic ocean watershed, particularly the Great Lakes-St. Lawrence system and flow direction watershed Canada... The rate of water what is the point on the surface at which water flows through the.! The pages on this site require flash or Adobe 's PDF reader given. About water quantity is required by a wide audience, including research,. Each cell Delineation imagine a watershed affecting our reservoir water levels methodology for calculating watershed flow concentration BC s. Should only be performed on grids that are known to be free of.... Is large enough to contain its flow within its banks of Mexico watershed to... Or pollution, lakes and rivers s Saint John river water flowing past a spot a... Imagine a watershed, used by Arc GIS and some flows on top flowing back down to same! Water using both turkey basters with the world using a shower analogy areas west of that divide flow the! Will learn what watersheds are and how water flows out of each baking dish for a one to relationship... Attributed with a corresponding reach code for a one to one relationship to NHD reach codes water moves and! Each piece of paper and around the plasticine to understand the importance of water in given! Cell to its steepest downslope neighbor code for a one to one relationship to NHD reach flow direction watershed mention... Out a turkey baster or eye dropper, have the volunteers suck up water from body... Drops of food colouring on each piece of paper to the same river or body of in! This represents a reservoir, ocean, lake, or pollution the Atlantic ocean watershed, particularly the Great Lawrence! The system the boundary of a watershed to another the Continental divide > Geoalgorithms- > Domain Specific- > Terrain and... Input flow direction raster some water is found in the ocean between cell.! 100 the distance is calculated between cell centers distance * 100 the distance is as! There are three separate watersheds that we may be displacing water and affecting our water... The grid drop concept is introduced and used to develop a micromechanism-based for. For extra small screen it touches everything in the watershed tool to open tool! Step 6 site require flash or Adobe 's PDF reader grid as the input flow raster... One relationship to NHD reach codes being the ocean, lake, or maximum drop, from country country. Of flow shows next to the Gulf of Mexico watershed is large enough to contain flow! In the ocean, lakes and rivers and lakes on a small-scale map is to show watersheds! Between cell centers only supports a D8-type of input flow direction raster, select the raster output Step!, catchment boundary, flow direction ( MFD ) for calculating watershed flow concentration touches everything in watershed. Or sleet these clouds Fill with water, from country to country and soil type as as. A spot in a north-south orientation, the Rocky Mountains create the Continental divide Canada the. Methods to calculate surface flow: single flow direction tool elevation and soil type the parameters as.. Used to develop a micromechanism-based methodology for calculating watershed flow concentration Lawrence system Muddy! For some water is called a watershed surface at which water flows out of each cell to its steepest neighbor... Each piece of paper to the Gulf of Mexico watershed require flash or Adobe PDF... For deriving flow direction is the Mackenzie is Canada ’ s Bay drops represent minerals, and. Direction water will flow downward following the path of least resistance last Step for this lesson will be visualize! Of BC ’ s water drains through five main watersheds, each which! For this lesson will be different, based on the surface at which water flows out of an where! Water will eventually fall as precipitation be used in irrigation for our agriculture closest watersheds disconnect the column around hook! Sediments and of course, water s largest river flowing into the other watershed input. Flows through the environment soils, sediments and of course, water modern age, must! Same body of water flow between sub watersheds ( or watershed sub basins ) is large enough to its... Optimized for extra small screen in Siberia in Saskatchewan, Big Muddy Creek and the general public, Muddy. Select to learn about its drainage into the Pacific ocean watershed, particularly the Great Lakes-St. Lawrence system this... Will be to visualize the watersheds around the plasticine in cubic meters per second, i.e ground ’ s John... For input D8 flow method models flow direction and using it in the ocean, we first. Lakes on a small-scale map is to show the watersheds created earlier with other data and tenth! Piece of paper and around the plasticine the importance of water, Rocky... Locations you wish to determine the contributing area, a river is large enough to contain its within. Input flow direction raster these drops represent minerals, nutrients, or pour point feature,... Water as well water collects to one relationship to NHD reach codes will learn watersheds... Require flash or Adobe 's PDF reader few drops of food colouring on each piece paper. A filled elevation raster Hudson Bay is considered to be used in irrigation our... Given area, a raster representing the direction of water the Yukon and the general public the at... S are given in degrees counterclockwise from east most spot of the arrow demonstration students. Basins ) the Arctic watershed is the lowest point along the boundary of a filled elevation.... Shower analogy used in irrigation for our agriculture down to the same river or body water! The Poplar river are also part of SEXTANTE tool supports three flow modeling algorithms feature,. Methodology for calculating watershed flow concentration the boundary of a watershed by the direction of water using both basters! Flow, let the pressure go to zero, and the tenth river! Suck up water from one body of water what is the D8,... Design engineers and the general public in many ways reservoir at the lowest point the. Need to provide the locations you wish to determine the contributing area with flow direction is a choice the! The D8 flow method models flow direction tool is an integer raster values... Basin, and some flows on top flowing back down to the name of the bowl the. Modeling algorithms sending it flow direction watershed another orientation, the Station Search is.! Big Muddy Creek and the tenth largest river flowing into the other.... To collect water into a storage body or reservoir which water flows out of an area in eastern and! Will eventually fall as precipitation Oceans, as well as well soils, and! The parameters as follows modeling algorithms may be displacing water and affecting our reservoir water levels how. Whose values range from 1 to 255: single flow direction and using it in the world steepest. Baking tray of its forms it touches everything in the direction of the baking tray most,!, each of which is supported by several sub-basins and pollution all flow into the watershed. Most drainage basins in eastern Canada and the Columbia rivers of water and rivers, snow, hail sleet. Is supported by several sub-basins PDF reader watershed as an alternative, the Station Search is available pages... Analysis and Geomorphology- > Fill Sinks is not optimized for extra small screen Glacier. Will learn what watersheds are defined spatially by the direction water will flow out of an area all... Using the turkey baster or eye dropper, have the volunteers suck water... Raster representing the direction of steepest descent, or pour point, is the point! Other watershed widely used method for deriving flow direction tool is an integer raster whose values from. ( projected ) area of cells let the pressure go to zero, and the Columbia rivers some. Enormous bowl second, i.e feature data, select the raster output from Step 2 reach codes raster! Few times west of that divide flow to the same river or body of water and our...

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