Sayf al-Dawla's Hamdanid Dynasty ruled large swaths of Syria and Iraq, and he led numerous campaigns against the Byzantine Empire during the 950s CE. Alternative Title: Phokas Phocas, (born 547—died October 5, 610), centurion of modest origin, probably from Thrace, who became the late Roman, or Byzantine, emperor in 602. Nikephorus Byzantinisches Reich, Kaiser 912-969. Nikephoros I ruled as emperor of the Byzantine Empire from 802 to 811 CE. Theophanes Continuatus names "Barda et Leonis" as children of "Nicephorusàdux in Thracesiorum themate". Nikephoros II Phokas Captures Aleppoby Cplakidas (Public Domain). Nikēphoros II Phōkas, Emperor of the East, 912-969. However, despite Cilicia and Syria laying open to Byzantine attack, Constantine VII (r. 913-959 CE), and his successor, Romanos II (r. 959-963 CE), directed Nikephoros to command the reconquest of Crete in 960 CE. At the end of the year, he looted Aleppo, Sayf al-Dawla’s capital. Nikephoros Phokas belonged to a Cappadocian family which had produced several distinguished generals, including Nikephoros' father (Bardas Phokas), uncle (Leo Phokas), and grandfather (Nikephoros Phokas the Elder), who had all served as commanders of the field army (domestikos tōn skholōn). Otto also allied himself with the Lombard dukes of Southern Italy, traditional enemies of the Byzantines. He possibly participated in Basil's 873 campaign … He died either in 895/6 or, less likely, sometime c. 900. His grandsons Nikephoros and Leo were likewise distinguished generals, while the former became emperor in 963–969, spearheading the recovery of several lost provinces from the Arabs. Nikifor Foka 912-969 . ???? It was Nikephoros' military achievement which provided the major area Nikēphoros II Phōkas, Emperor of the East. It would have been very unusual for a former Domestic to be appointed to the subordinate position of a thematic strategos, and there is reason to doubt the authenticity of the tale of Zaoutzes' seeing in Nikephoros a potential future emperor and offering the hand of an—otherwise unknown—daughter in marriage. Theophanes Continuatus records that … Nikephoros came from a leading military family, the Phokas. License. Contemporaries and later historians lauded him for his military ability and character. This license lets others remix, tweak, and build upon this content non-commercially, as long as they credit the author and license their new creations under the identical terms. In the midst of a crisis all too common in Constantinople, Empress Theophano invited Nikephoros Phokas to act as protector and regent for her sons Basil and Constantine. If an internal link led you here, you may wish to change the link to point directly to the intended article. Nikephoros only had one son from a previous marriage, but he had tragically died in a hunting accident. Nikephoros, Phokas, ca. Later in 963 CE, Nikephoros married Theophano, the widow of Romanos II, to further legitimize his reign but also to better protect the young princes, Basil and Constantine. His grandfather, father, and uncle were all high-ranking military officers, and Nikephoros was similarly raised to be a soldier and general. https://www.ancient.eu/Nikephoros_II_Phokas/. Marriage to Nikephoros II Phokas On March 15, 963, Emperor Romanos II died unexpectedly at the age of twenty-six. Nikephoros, Phokas, ca. from 963-969. Nikēphoros II Phōkas, Emperor of the East, 912-969. Nikephoros, Phokas, ca.  Shaun Tougher however posits that Nikephoros was sent to Italy only after the accession of Leo VI, as Leo in his writings takes credit for his dispatch there, and that his recall was not until c. Nikephoros' entry into Constantinople as Emperor through the Golden Gate in summer 963.. With the help of Theophano and the patriarch, Nikephoros Phokas received supreme command of the eastern forces and, after being proclaimed Emperor by them on 2 July 963, he marched upon the capital, where his partisans had overthrown his enemy Bringas. Meanwhile the forces of the Emir of Tarsus, in Cilicia, had raided Byzantine lands while Nikephoros was making a bid for the throne in Constantinople and securing his rule. ????? Date: 20 mars 2007: Source : en:Image:Nikephoros Phokas flag.jpg: Auteur: Traced by User:Stannered: Autorisation (Réutilisation de ce fichier) GFDL origgyjujtinal: Autres versions: en:I Nikephoros II Phokas. He won the war in the East against the Arabs and because of that, he wore the title of Commander of the Eastern troops. The Rise and Fall of Nikephoros II Phokas, Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike. Theophanes Continuatus names "Bardas Phokas" during the account of the war with Bulgaria (in 918). Meanwhile, Nikephoros was unraveling Byzantium’s foreign relations. 912-969. His brilliant military exploits contributed to the resurgence of the Byzantine Empire during the 10th century. Nikephoros re-established complete Byzantine control when a fleet under Nikephoros Chalkoutzes expelled the Arabs in 965 CE. In 966 CE, Nikephoros marched his army east into Syria but achieved no real benefits. , Byzantium had been absent from the affairs of southern Italy for almost a century, but the accession of Basil the Macedonian changed this: from 868 on, the imperial fleet and diplomacy were employed in an effort to secure the Adriatic Sea from Saracen raids, re-establish Byzantine dominance over Dalmatia, and extend Byzantine control once more over parts of Italy. Nikephoros Phokas (Νικηφόρος Φωκᾶς, Nikēphoros Phōkas; died 895/6 or ca.  His command involved the forces of several western themes (Thrace, Macedonia, Cephallenia, Longobardia and Calabria), but Theophanes Continuatus also reports that Nikephoros received further reinforcements from the themes of Asia Minor, including a Paulician detachment. Nicephorus II Phocas, (born 912, Cappadocia—died Dec. 10/11, 969, Constantinople), Byzantine emperor (963–969), whose military achievements against the Muslim Arabs contributed to the resurgence of Byzantine power in the 10th century.. The 11th-century historian John Skylitzes furthermore reports that Nikephoros brought an end to abuse against the local population, by ending the practice of returning Byzantine soldiers carrying off local Italians to be sold off in the East as slaves. Nikephoros I or Nicephorus I, Logothetes or Genikos (died July 26, 811) was Byzantine emperor from 802 to 811, when he was killed in the Battle of Pliska. Liudprand described Nikephoros as follows: [Nikephoros was] a quite monstrous man, dwarfish, with a fat head, and mole-like by virtue of the smallness of his eyes, deformed by a short beard that is wide and thick and graying, disgraced by a finger-like neck, quite like Hyopas because of the abundance and thickness of his hair, in color quite like the Ethiopian whom you would not like to run into in the middle of the night. His reign, however, included controversy. His brilliant military exploits contributed to the resurgence of the Byzantine Empire during the 10th century.  Leo VI's Tactica and the later De velitatione further mention a successful raid into the Arab lands of Cilicia led by Nikephoros, in retaliation of an Arab attack on the fortress of Mistheia in the Anatolic Theme. In The Rise and Fall of Nikephoros II Phokas, Denis Sullivan presents five Byzantine Greek texts that document the remarkable career of Nikephoros II Phokas, emperor from 963 until his death in 969.The first three texts are historical chronicles covering the period 944-963, which sees Nikephoras’ rise from military general. Nikephoros II Phokas soldaat uit Byzantijnse Rijk (912-969) Nikēphoros Phōkas 912-969. Emperor: Nikephoros II Phokas (963-969) Type: Standard circulation coin: Years: 963-969: Value: Miliaresion = 1/12 Solidus (1/12) Currency: Second Solidus Nomisma (720-1092) Composition: Silver: Diameter: 24 mm: Shape: Round: Demonetized: Yes: Obverse. Nikephoros Phokas was born around 912 and belonged to a Cappadocian Greek family which had produced several distinguished generals, including Nikephoros' father Bardas Phokas, brother Leo Phokas, and grandfather Nikephoros Phokas the Elder, who had all served as commanders of the field army (domestikos tōn scholōn). Nikephoros was appointed to strategos, or governor-general, of the Anatolikon Theme, a major Byzantine province, by Constantine VII. 900), usually surnamed the Elder to distinguish him from his grandson, Emperor Nikephoros II Phokas, was one of the most prominent Byzantine generals of the late 9th century, and the first important member of the Phokas … Cedrenus records that, after his restoration (944), Emperor Konstantinos VII … Nikephoros Phokas "Der bleiche Tod der Sarazenen" und Johannes Tzimiskes : ... Nikephoros II Phokas Byzantine emperor. Nikephoros II Phokas, latinized Nicephorus II Phocas (Greek: Νικηφόρος Β΄ Φωκᾶς, Nikēphoros II Phōkas, c. 912 – 10 December 969), was a Byzantine Emperor (963-969) whose brilliant military exploits contributed to the resurgence of Byzantine Empire in the tenth century. Nikephoros II Phokas or Nicephorus II Phocas (Greek: Νικηφόρος Β΄ Φωκάς, Nikēphoros II Phōkas), (c. 912 – 969), Byzantine Emperor from 963 to 969. But there was some sort of falling out between Nikephoros and Petar, and Nikephoros paid the Rus leader, Sviatoslav (r. 945-972 CE), to raid Bulgaria. Nikephoros’ sustained success against the Arabs (also known as Saracens) led his subjects to dub him the terrifying “White Death of the Saracens.” But while Nikephoros was a military hero, as emperor he alienated several powerful segments in Byzantine society, undermining his rule and legacy. On August 16, 963, Nikephoros II Phokas entered the city of Constantinople in triumph as its new emperor, acclaimed by the army, and just six years later was brutally assassinated on the evening of December 11, 969. Nikephorus Byzantinisches Reich, Kaiser 912-969. Edit Edit profile photo . Books Last modified July 06, 2018. "Nikephoros II Phokas." John Tzimiskes and his co-conspirators broke into Nikephoros’ sleeping chambers and murdered the sleeping Nikephoros. Sayf suffered a series of defeats which undermined his authority, and the Byzantine army captured the major cities of Hadath and Samosata. Nikephoros now returned with a vengeance.  According to the continuators of Georgios Monachos, he was besieging Amantia when news came of Emperor Basil's death and his own recall by Leo VI; Nikephoros kept the news a secret until he had persuaded the Arab garrison to surrender on guarantee of safe passage. Phokas or Phocas (Φωκᾶς), feminine form Phokaina (Greek: Φώκαινα), was the name of a Byzantine aristocratic clan from Cappadocia, which in the 9th and 10th centuries provided a series of high-ranking generals and an emperor, Nikephoros II Phokas (r. 963–969). Nikephorus Byzantinisches Reich, Kaiser II. Jul 23, 2014 - Emperor Nikephoros II Phokas (r. 963-969 AD). In spring 970, following the murder of his great-uncle Emperor Nikephoros II Phokas by John I Tzimiskes, Bardas Phokas tried to raise a rebellion against the new regime in the family's base at Cappadocia, but Tzimiskes dispatched Bardas Skleros against him. Written by Michael Goodyear, published on 06 July 2018 under the following license: Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike. One of the greatest soldier-emperors, he successfully fought the Arabs and Bulgars. A former finance minister who did much to improve the state economy, Nikephoros was not particularly popular with the empire’s overtaxed peasants and overregulated merchants. F????) Ancient History Encyclopedia Limited is a non-profit company registered in the United Kingdom. Retrieved from https://www.ancient.eu/Nikephoros_II_Phokas/. The Patriarch of Constantinople then crowned Nikephoros co-emperor with the young future Basil II (r. 976-1025 CE) and Constantine VIII (r. 1025-1028 CE). Yet this action highlighted the rising disconnect between people and ruler. Ancient History Encyclopedia. The regions of Apulia, Calabria and Basilicata would remain firmly under Byzantine control until the 11th century. His reign, however, included controversy. 912-969. Sayf al-Dawla, the Hamdanid Emir of Mosul, dies.  By the time of his departure, he had extended Byzantine control over most of Apulia and Calabria. Sviatoslav raided deep into Bulgaria in 968 CE and Petar died the next year, leaving a weak Tsar Boris II (r. 969-971 CE), a collapsing Bulgarian state, and a ferocious Rus horde on Byzantium’s doorsteps. He also appointed his nephew, John Tzimiskes, to be domestikos, or commander, of the East and appointed his brother, Leo, to logothetes, or administrator of the state finances. Otto invaded Byzantine southern Italy in 968 CE, desiring the entire peninsula. His brilliant military exploits contributed to the resurgence of the Byzantine Empire during the 10th century. Pages in category "Nikephoros II Phokas" This category contains only the following page. However the two generals revealed the plan of Bringas to Nikephoros and as a result the army of Caesaria declared Nikephoros as emperor in 963. Nikephoros returned to Syria in 968 CE, marching as far south as Tripoli in modern Lebanon and acquired the important port city of Laodikeia. Both the Kourkouai and the Phokadai were distinguished Cappadocian families, and among the most prominent of the emerging military aristocracy of … The implicit agreement was that Nikephoros would protect Basil & Constantine & rule in their stead, not found a new dynasty. , By all accounts, Nikephoros Phokas was a capable soldier. Nicephorus II Phocas, (born 912, Cappadocia—died Dec. 10/11, 969, Constantinople), Byzantine emperor (963–969), whose military achievements against the Muslim Arabs contributed to the resurgence of Byzantine power in the 10th century. Perhaps one of the most famous images of any Byzantine emperor was provided by the German ambassador Liduprand of Cremona. His greatest triumph as general (domestikos [q.v.] Nikephoros II Phokas Emperor from 963 to 969. Crete had been a major thorn in the side of Byzantium; its conquest by Arabs from Spain in the 820s CE had opened the door to devastating raids throughout the Aegean, and the Byzantines had failed on five previous occasions to retake the island. Watercolors Nikephoros Phokas was a prominent general and later emperor of the Byzantine Empire, whose brilliant military exploits contributed to the resurgence of Byzantium as a great power during the 10th century. Byzantines under Nikephoros Phokas besiege Chandax.png 1,572 × 641; 1.73 MB. Entry of Nikephoros Phokas (r. 963-969) into Constantinople as emperor, from the Madrid Skylitzes. Nikēphoros Emperor of the East, II Phōkas, 912-969. He sacked Anazarbos and then Hierapolis (modern Manbij) in 962 CE. Some Rights Reserved (2009-2021) under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike license unless otherwise noted. Nicephorus II Phocas, Emperor of the East, 912-969; Detailed View He promoted the interests of soldiers, arranged the state finances to focus on funding the army, and tactlessly dealt with criticism. Nikephoros increased taxes to fund his wars, although the taxes probably fell the most heavily on his own class, the Anatolian military elite. For Kazhdan, the presentation of Nikephoros' reputation by his admirers was "the first attempt to create the image of the emperor as a noble warrior".14 One can surely go further than this. Ancient History Encyclopedia.  Otranto was taken from the Saracens in 873, and Bari in 876. The encounters between Nikephoros and Otto’s ambassador, Liudprand of Cremona, in Constantinople, who seemed to despise each other, speak to the dismal relations between the Holy Roman and Byzantine Empires. Ancient History Encyclopedia. Known as “White Death of the Saracens,” Nikephoros was a fearsome commander who conquered Crete, Cilicia, and much of Syria. The Abbasid Caliphate was limited to Baghdad itself and much of the Middle East was ruled by strongmen. Share your family tree and photos with the people you know and love. Nikephoros’ deep unpopularity made him only mourned among the military. Nikēphoros Emperor of the East, II Phōkas, 912-969. Note: this flag is a conjectural reconstruction, and not historically attested. , In 895, he was sent against the Bulgarians at the head of a large army. Nikephoros was dark and stocky, with thick hair. The government of the Byzantine Empire was headed and dominated... John I Tzimiskes was Byzantine emperor from 969 to 976 CE. His brilliant military exploits contributed to the resurgence of the Byzantine Empire during the 10th century. His aim was not to conquer the emirate, but to terminate its role as a regional power – the city of Aleppo was thoroughly sacked and its forces destroyed, but its territories were not annexed. When Nikephoros celebrated his triumph in Constantinople for his victory at Aleppo, Joseph Bringas, Romanos’ chief administrator, forced Nikephoros to swear loyalty to Romanos’ two young sons, Basil and Constantine, the scions of the Macedonian Dynasty. His brilliant military exploits contributed to the resurgence of the Byzantine Empire during the 10th century. He then built a fortress to block off Antioch, one of the former greatest cities of the Byzantine Empire, before returning to Constantinople. His brilliant military exploits contributed to the resurgence of the Byzantine Empire during the 10th century. Antioch fell to Byzantine forces in 969 CE. We have also been recommended for educational use by the following publications: Ancient History Encyclopedia Foundation is a non-profit organization registered in Canada.  It is likely, however, that Nikephoros was originally sent to Italy already before that, at the head of a picked detachment of troops from Charsianon, which Theophanes Continuatus records as part of Maxentios' expeditionary force. However, the Patriarch of Constantinople, Polyeuktos, protested, pointing out that Nikephoros had stood as the godfather of Basil or Constantine, which in the eyes of the church made him the same as a biological parent. Achetez magFlags Drapeau Large Nikoforos Fokas | Eastern Roman Emperor Nikephoros Phokas | ????? The wife of Leo IV (r. 775-780 CE) and regent for her young son Constantine VI from 780-790 CE, Irene took sole power in 797 CE after enduring the ignominy of exile following her insistence she should rule above her son no matter what age he reached. After a period out of office, Nikephoros was then appointed strategos either of Charsianon or of the Thracesian Theme, spending his remaining years, until his death around 900, fighting against the Arabs. In 961 when the news about Nikephoros Phokas success in Crete arrived in Constantinople, he became very popular and festivities were organised in the hippodrome .After his success in Crete he returned to the eastern front to deal with the main rival of the Byzantines the Hamdanid emir who was based in Halepi(Aleppo).In 962 Nikephoros Phokas took the initiative to …  Nikephoros' command in Italy lasted until his recall to Constantinople following the accession of Leo VI the Wise, in late 886. Nikephoros II Phokas, 912 – 969, was a great military commander, and a Byzantine emperor 963-969. Although... John Tzimiskes is appointed domestikos of the East in the. Nikephoros then turned back to the east and attacked Cilicia and then Syria. Nikephoros Phokas 912-969. Nikephoros Phokas (Greek: Νικηφόρος Φωκᾶς), surnamed Barytrachelos (Βαρυτράχηλος, "heavy-neck"; Armenian: Cṙ[a]viz, Georgian: Carvezi, "wry-neck"), was a Byzantine aristocrat and magnate, the last major member of the Phokas family to try and claim the imperial throne. Nikephoros II Phokas was Byzantine emperor from 963 to 969 CE. 912-969. , Shortly after, at any rate before 878, Nikephoros was promoted to the rank of protostrator and received from the emperor his own palace in the vicinity of the Church of St.
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